|Vol.7 No.5 October1999 ISSN:0971-4413|
PU DESHPANDE Defence Research & Development Organisation ChiefContoller R&D 316, `B Wing, Sena Bhavan
Ministry of Defence DHQ PO, New Delhi-110011
In the current scenario of no use of nuclear weapons, the defence systems are strongly biased in favour of conventional armaments. A clear signal exists that the key to success in the future lies in enhancement of range, lethality and precision of conventional armaments.
The current decade of 90s is witnessing the maturity of Indian armament R&D with the development of highly challenging and complex systems like Pinaka MBRS, smart ammunition, long range gun projectiles, air defence and field artillary systems, stand-off bombs for aircraft, etc,
Self-reliance has been the basic objective of armament R&D activities in India. Quality of the product design compares favourably with the best available in the world elsewhere. Some technologies like illuminating ammunitions, FSAPDS shots and gun/rocket/missiles propellants even surpass the performance of the contemporary design in many respect. The technologies pertaining to conventional armaments have come to a matured level and India has achieved self-reliance in this area.
The most outstanding feature of armament R&D activities in India is the intense interaction of the R&D Laboratories with the Ordnance Factories and DGQA Organisation. These three organisations have functioned as a cohesive team and the armament products required by the Services have been taken from the stage of inception to mass production in a synergistic mode.
The armament industry in India is poised to achieve greater heights in the near future by accepting challenges to fulfil critical needs of the Services in respect of conventional armaments with enhanced performance.
Technological FeaturesModular Design: Shivalik has three basic modulesfuze, grenade body and launcher tube. The different modules can be assembled or dissembled with ease. It is possible to prime and unprime the grenade any number of times without affecting its efficiency. The fuze assembly forms the basic module. With the explosive filled non-splintering body, it forms an offensive grenade. Addition of fragmenting sleeve transforms it into defensive grenade and the attachment of a launch tube converts it into a rifle grenade.
Multi-Mode Concept:Shivalik is multi-functional depending on the situation. In offensive role, it is used in the final stages of assault from a distance of about 50 m from the line of enemy defence. Being non-splintering type, offensive grenade on detonation stuns the enemy through concussion effect within a radius of about 5 m from the point of burst. In the defensive mode, it is used against the enemy troops in open when our own troops are in defence. The controlled and uniform spread of the fragments from the fragmenting sleeve can incapacitate a human being within a specified radius from the point of burst, but causes no harm to our own troops beyond a certain predetermined distance. The technology of the prefragmented pellets, embedded in a plastic matrix has been fully established. The main bursting charge is precast pellet (RDX/TNT), the technology for which has been developed indigenously. The bullet trap technology has been incorporated in the launching tube, which enables use of normal ball ammunition for its launch from 5.56 mm INSAS rifle.
Fuze: The fuze has been designed to function on impact with a guarantee of self-destruction due to incorporation of a predetermined delay. The fuze functions at all angles of impact. An additional safety mechanism has been provided by a shutter mechanism blocking the explosive train. A safety lever mechanism has been incorporated to hold the safety pin secured. In rifle grenade lever is secured by a metallic ring which flies back due to set back forces on firing arming the fuze after a safe distanceSight: A bubble sight has been provided for mounting on the rifle to aid the firer to achieve the desired ranges at different firing angles. The maximum range achieved by the rifle grenade is 200 m in comparison to 120 m presently achieved from M 36 grenade.
The grenade body has been made very light and compact by using special polymers. The shape is more ergonomical. The grenade, besides being paradroppable, can be used in the temperature range of -20 oC to +55 oC and is not affected by rain or humidity conditions. The grenade is maintenance free. The Shivalik grenade is in the final stages of user trials. With its introduction into the Services, it will substantially contribute to the infantrys capabilities in the battlefield and the country will move one step forward towards its mission of self-reliance.
Armaments,Indian Small Arms System, MultiBarrel Rocket System- Pinaka ,Fin Stabilized Armour Piercing Discarding Sabot, Illuminating Ammunition ,Bund Blasting Device,30mm HE Grenade for AGL,Charge Line Mine Clearing Equipment ,Propellant Technology, 84mm Light Weight RL Weapon ,Warheads ,Lead Zirconate Titanate Based Piezoceramics ,Armament Research Board