Guidance determines appropriate missile flight path dynamics to achieve the
mission objectives and miss distance. It finds the latest position of
missile during the flight and provides the required error corrections. DRDO
has developed the following guidance systems under the IGMDP.
STRAP-DOWN INERTIAL GUIDANCE SYSTEMS
Strap-down inertial guidance
systems based on DTG and force balanced accelerometers for short and medium
range tactical missiles has been developed. DRDO has also developed
navigation algorithm with embedded software and global positioning system
(GPS)-inertial navigation system, transfer alignment schemes, GPS-aided
navigation, and sensor modelling for various types of missiles.
Strap-down Inertial Guidance System
Optical gyroscopes such as
ring laser gyroscope (RLG) of inertial class and fiber optic gyroscope (FOG)
of both control and inertial class has been developed to reduce the reaction
time and for high navigational accuracy.
Fiber Optic Gyroscope
FOG is an optical gyroscope working on the basic principle of Saganac
interferometer. It is having numerous advantages over the conventional
mechanical gyroscopes because of the absence of any moving mechanical parts.
Small size, lightweight, no acceleration dependent ‘g’ drift, faster
reaction time, and low maintenance are some of the other important features
The integrating technology of the FOG is highly flexible, which helps in
achieving various grades of performances just by varying the coil dimensions
and length. Inertial grade FOGs are developed concurrent with the indigenous
development of integrated optical chip.
Ring Laser Gyro
A RLG of inertial class has been developed using total internal reflection
prisms. The complete optical processing, inspection, design of electronics
for RLG control and measurement have been realised. RLG can be used in any
missile with longer flight time and in LCA.
RF COMMAND GUIDANCE
DRDO has developed RF command guidance systems
including transponder, command link system, twin antenna switching and
hybrid MIC and various types of antennas systems such as cassegrain
reflector monopulse antenna, monopulse corrugated horn and lightweight
trans-twist monopulse antenna.
Seekers are used to accurately guide missiles to their targets. DRDO has
developed seekers like visible CCD seeker, IIR seeker, and MMW seeker along
with image processing system for scene matching.
Imaging Infrared Seekers
Imaging infrared seekers are widely used either for implementing the homing
guidance principle in short-range tactical missions or for achieving the
required terminal accuracy for the long-range air defence scenario.
2-D FPA-based sensor
Double axis gyro
A three-channel monopulse
receiver has been developed in the Ku-band using state-of-the-art hybrid MIC
technology. The receiver has been designed, modelled and simulated for
performance against various input and environmental conditions before its
practical realisation. The size of the receiver is 55 m x 45 m x 20 mm.
The component will be used as
the front-end receiver in the indigenously designed and developed seeker.
The size and mounting have been so chosen that it can be mounted on the back
of antenna. The three-channel monopulse receiver will replace the costlier
imported receiver front-ends.