Diagnostic Products for Infection Imaging

Radiopharmaceutical Kits

Lyophilised DiagnobactTM kit

DRDO has produced a number of radiopharmaceutical kits for infection/inflammation imaging that are used regularly for diagnostic purposes. These include Tc-99m citrate, Tc-99m dextran and Tc-99m polyclonal human immunoglobin. Many specific bacterial infection imaging agents have also been developed that are useful in detection of site of bacterial infection in human body upon reconstitution with Tc-99m. These include fluoroquinalone antibiotics like ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, sparfloxacin, gaityfloxacin and other like clamindamycin. Tc-99m ciprofloxacin (DiagnobactTM) kit has been approved for marketing after completing successful multicentric trial in more than 500 cases in 26 nuclear medicine centres across the country. Its primary use is in diagnosis of infection in painful prosthesis, fever of unknown origin and differentiation of infective lesion from simple inflammation. It is also useful for diagnosis and follow up of tubercular osteomyelitis.
Another,Tc-99m citrate kit (DiagnomammoTM) has also been produced by DRDO for detection of primary breast cancer and bone metastatic disease and is being used in 16 nuclear medicine centres. Two other products, Tc-99m INH and Tc-99m ethambutol, have been developed for specific tubercular imaging. These have entered phase-2 stage after completing pre-clinical, animal and Phase-I study successfully.

Pharmacoscintigraphy Modules for Infection/Inflammation

Scintigraphy with Tc-99m ethambutol shows four active TB sites including two unsuspected ones

Osteoarthritis of knee and active ulcerative colitis have been identified by DRDO as pharmacoscintigraphy human models for development of novel antiinflammatory drugs. Using radiopharmaceuticals like Tc-99m dextran, HES or HIG, inflammation in the lesion is quantified. Reduction, if any, in the inflammation caused by administration of a novel drug or a drug-delivery system is then compared to a standard drug like aspirin to confirm efficacy of the new drug.
Similarly, chronic pelvic infection has been identified as a model for testing efficacy of antibiotics using Tc-99m ciprofloxacin as a label.