Management of High Altitude Pulmonary Oedema
Out of several high altitude sickness (acute mountain
sickness), high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) is dangerous and becomes fatal if not
managed timely and properly. The following HAPO management protocols have been developed
and are being used in field areas.
HAPO is common among low landers when exposed to high altitude
without proper acclimatisation. The incident is related to high altitude and rate of
ascent. HAPO refers to the state of filling of alveoli of lungs with the fluid from the
walls of pulmonary capillaries. This is characterised by exercise intolerance,
breathlessness, chest pain, fatigue, coughing, lethargy and disorientation. A single man
portable hyperbaric chamber HAPO bag has been developed which is made of specially
developed polyurethane material. It simulates low altitude conditions at high altitude
locations. It is considered an excellent first-aid treatment used for shifting HAPO
patient safely to lower altitude. The 2.05 m long and 0.58 m average diameter bag weighs
approximately 4 kg. The technology for manufacturing HAPO bag has been transferred for
production. The HAPO bag was used in shifting HAPO patients in Kargil heights during
Nitric Oxide Treatment
The primary causative factor potentiating HAPO is the
pulmonary vasoconstriction entailing an 6 increase in pulmonary artery pressure. To reduce
pulmonary artery pressure, a suitable pulmonary , vasodilator or administration of oxygen
is required. Since nitric oxide is a selective pulmonary vasodilator .besides oxygen, the
combined effect of these two gases is synergistic. Successful attempt has been made
in India to treat patients who are severely affected with HAPO, by the combined
administration of nitric oxide and oxygen at leh in army hospitals. Twenty-eight HAPO
patients during Kargil operation were treated with this gas mixture. Within 24 hr, they
all became normal with reversal of the observed increase in pulmonary artery pressure.
Serial X-ray (chest) showed clearance of oedema. The synergistic effect of these two gases
improved the oxygenation with decrease in pulmonary artery pressure.
Protective Aids & Flying Clothing for Aircrew
DRDO has developed the following protective aids and
clothing for aircrew keeping in view the performance requirements under diverse
Light Weight Aircrew Helmet
A light-weight helmet has been designed and developed meeting the requirements of
uncompromised head protection. The helmet is fitted with two optically clear visors,
weighs around 1.3 kg and is available in three sizes.
Pressure Breathing Oxygen Mask
The pressure breathing oxygen mask is of low-volume, high- flow and down-sloping type. It
separates the respiratory system from the ambient. The weight of the mask is 450 g and it
is available in two sizes.
Fire Retardant Overall Flying
The overall has been developed from specially developed Kermel-viscose blend fabric. It is
light in weight, does not support
combustion and does not melt and drip. It meets the fire retardant characteristics as per
The antl-G SUit IS designed to enhance the z tolerance. t IS a helmet; B: Automatic
inflatable life jacket; cut-away type with five bladders design. The suit incorporates the
c: Gloves flying; D: Boots flying; comfort zippers feature. The anti-G suit is available
in five sizes. E: Anti-G suit; F: Fire retardant overall flying; G: Pressure breathing
Automatic Inflatable Life Jacket
The automatic inflatable life jacket is designed to protect
the flyer during sea survival. It is a stole-type carbon dioxide inflatable life jacket,
weighing 1.9 kg. It is of universal adult size, adjustable for fit. Gloves Flying The
gloves have been designed and developed to provide light-weight comfortable hand-wear for
pilots. It is designed to provide maximum dexterity and touch sense and does not interfere
with the operation of aircraft controls and use of survival equipment. It is available in
The boots are developed from water-proof leather and have anti-skid rubber sole. The boots
are light-weight and comfortable. The design of the boots caters to adequate ankle
A new technique has been developed to minimise and
mitigate the adverse effects of noise on the auditory system of a human being. The
technique involves inhaling of carbogen gas -a mixture of 5 per cent carbon dioxide and 95
per cent oxygen for 5 minutes before exposure to noise. To inhale this gas mixture, a
carbogen breathing assembly has been designed and developed with the help of Industrial
Design Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Mumbai.
Inhalation of this gas mixture reduces the temporary loss of hearing : sensitivity
commonly caused by noise during initial phases of exposure. If the exposure is repeated as
in many occupational environment, the temporary hearing loss gives rise to permanent
hearing disability. The use of carbogen mixture prevents the development of permanent loss
of hearing. The use of this gas mixture as a prophylactic agent against noise assault has
been demonstrated in controlled laboratory experiments with no adverse effects. The use of
carbogen has potential application for armed forces personnel and industrial workers in
civil sector having frequent exposure to noise in their occupational environment.
Solid-State Cooling Garment for Tank Crew
The field studies conducted by DRDO on the problems of tank
crew in desert environment have identified the need for the development of microclimate
cooling device to combat the high heat loads encountered by the tank crew. The
microclimate of the crew component gets heated to temperatures beyond 50 ° C. Exposure to
such high temperature leads to heat disorders, causing deterioration in the mental and
physical work capacity of the crew members.
Human factors considerations and the process of heat
transfer from the human body have revealed that microclimate cooling close to body surface
of the crew members is the only possible and effective solution to the problem. With this
in view, the design parameters for the development of thermoelectric solid-state cooling
garment based on Peltier's effect of cooling finalized.
The unit is devised by using TE modules having suitable
coefficient of performance. The modules I are sandwitched between two copper plates that
act as hot side and cold side plates, Water is used as heat exchanger that circulates
through the grooves in the cold plate and cool down to approximately 20 :t 1° C. The cold
water is then allowed to circulate through the thin PVC linings of the tubing which are in
contact with body surface. The cold water picks up heat from the body surface and cools
The application of the solid-state cooling garment has been demonstrated in the human
climatic chamber and also in the crew compartments of T -72 and MBT Arjun, The system has
been found to be effective and provides more than 300 W of cooling at power input of 460
W. In this endeavour, MECON Ltd, Ranchi, has lend their expertise. Miniaturization of the
system has been planned.
DRDO in collaboration with the LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad,
has designed a pulsed Nd- VAG laser with a delivery system for ophthalmological
applications. The system is used as a photodisruptor for the treatment of glaucoma. It is
configured as a Q-switched laser operating at its fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm.
Radiotherapy of Tumours using 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose
The glucose analogue 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) selectively enhances the raDIATion damage in
tumours by inhibiting cellular repair processes. Phase 1/11 clinical trials have
demonstrated the feasibility of administering the combined treatment of 2- DG +
radiotherapy in patients with brain tumours. Dose optimization clinical trials Drishti
have shown that the combined treatment is well tolerated up to a 2-DG dose of 250 mg/kg
body weight without any acute toxicity and significant brain damage.
Multicentric trials are in progress at the Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Dharamshila
Cancer Hospital & Research Centre, New Delhi and Amala Cancer Hospital, Trissur.
Method for the indigenous production of 2-DG has been developed by DRDO. The product has
been tested for toxicity and efficacy and found suitable for clinical studies.
Indigenous Titanium Medical Devices
Titanium minicortical bone plates and screws have been developed indigenously, in
collaboration with the Non Ferrous Technology Development Centre (NFTDC), Hyderabad. After
successful clinical trials, these bone plates are being marketed by NFTDC forthe benefit
of the common man.
Titanium dental implants along with surgical kit have also
been developed indigenously and the , clinical trials have been completed successfully.
The implants are likely to be marketed by the middle of this year.
DRDO through its life sciences and agricultural laboratories has taken up several projects
to develop herbal preparation to counter diverse health and associated problems. Some of
the technologies have been briefly mentioned below.
CONCEPT, a vaginal contra-ceptive
containing NIM-76 as the spermicidal agent extracted from neem oil developed by DRDO, has
been shown to have 100 per cent efficacy in experimental animals as precoital vaginal
contraceptive. The preclinical toxicity studies conducted at DRDO and Rallis India
Research Laboratories have shown that the formulation does not have any Titanium dental
implant. CONCEPT-a neem contraceptive (right) adverse effects.
One of the major acute mountain sicknesses is
frostbite, which sometimes leads to amputation of affected parts. DRDO is
continuously engaged in finding out suitable H prophylactic and curative measures of this
problem. 41 DAY ,!2 In early studies, a herb Aloe vera has been found useful for both
prophylactic and curative measures in frostbite. In recent studies, the combined therapy
of pentoxifyline, Aspirin and Vitamin C with topical application of Aloe vera cream,
preceded by rapid rewarming in tea decoction maintained at 37" C has been found
effective in experimental rats.
Trials have been planned on human subjects in field conditions. Positive findings in human
subjects, ifestablished, will help to formulate a simple procedure of treatment
Composite Indian Herbal
Preparations (CIHPs) as Adaptogens at High Altitude
number of Indian troops who serve in the extreme altitude, cold area or in low intensity
conflict situations are exposed to extreme stress, and a reckonable percentage of them may
become sick due to high altitude, cold-induced diseases and extreme psychological stress.
A number of studies conducted have shown that the composite indian herbal preparations
(CIHPs) are beneficial in such situations. It has been observed that CIHPs not only help
to reduce the rate of morbidity/mortality in the troops, but also help as morale booster
as they relieve the stress among soldiers deployed in extremely stressful environment
including that of counter-insurgencyoperations.
The composite indian herbal preparation-1 (CIHP-I) has been field evaluated and it has
been found effective in coping with stress resulting from anti-insurgency operations. The
results of the trials Iindicate that the CIHP-I intake helps in the improvement of high
cognitive functions, better maintained cellular membrane permeability by restricting
stress-induced increase in circulating CPK, subjective relief and improved physical work ,
performance in low intensity conflict areas.
Administration of another herbal preparation, CIHP-II
before induction and during stay at high altitude facilitate the acclimatization
process and restore the normal physiological and biological functions among troops. The
incidence of acute mountain sickness is also reduced. It also facilitates
normalization of most of the body functions on return to plains. To evaluate acceptability
and subjective efficacy of CIHP-II in extreme altitudes (i.e. beyond 4800 m), a large
scale trial at altitude of 4,800-6,000 m is in progress.
Herbal Based Vitamin Beverage of Seabuckthorn
Seabuckthorn is a wild shrub found in high altitude areas with excellent nutritional,
anti-cold, anti-ageing and anti-raDIATion properties. The fruit juice of seabuckthorn is a
rich source of vitamins A, B1 , B2, C, E and K. DRDO has developed beverage out of berries
of this plant which does not freeze at subzero temperature and is an excellent health
Antimycotic Herbal Extracts
A series of studies has indicated that alcohol/water extracts of Terminalia chebula, T
bellirica, T arjuna, Oelonix regia, Emblica officinalis and Punica grantum were found
effective in total suppression of growth of pure dermatophytes isolated from the
North eastern region is enriched with medicinal,
insecticidal and repellent flora. This flora has been screened for mosquito larvicide,
adulticide and repellent properties. A herbal vaporiser has been developed to keep the
mosquitoes away from the human dwellings. Another for mu la ti o n Seabuckthorn--wonder
plant capable of killing the mosquitoes in dwellings within 2 hr by slow release of vapour
from an electro-vapour system has been developed. Both the systems use plant extracts in
deodorized kerosene oil base.
Herbal Protector against RaDIATion
Radioprotection is a necessity especially during radiotherapy and nuclear eventualities.
As an alternative to synthetic molecular radioprotective agents which are toxic at useful
concentration, a radioprotector has been developed from Podophyl/um hexandrum--a herb,
growing at about 10,000' in the Himalayan ranges. Pre-irraDIATion administration of
extracts of rhizome/root of Podophyllum hexandrum, well below the acute toxic doserendered
more than 90 per cent survival against 1000 cGy whole body lethal exposure in experimental
Podophyllum protected blood forming capacity as seen in
bone marrow, spleen colony forming cells, intestinal villi and crypts generating them.
Micronuclei frequency which is an index of DNA (cytogenetic) damage was also reduced. It
also helps in treating cancers and genital warts and offers a great hope as a potential
radioprotector for human use.
Biomass and biowaste are biodegradable giving rise to useful and harmless products.
Technologies have been developed for biodegradation of human waste in high altitudes.
Microbes working at low temperature have been identified. Suitable biodigesters for high
altitudes have been developed which are in use at leh, Partapur base camp, etc.in ladakh
region. Huge biomass as crop wastes, weeds, aquatic plants, tree leaves, animal excreta,
kitchen waste, agro- industry waste and city refuges etc. is available in both rural and
urban areas. Waste disposal is a serious problem to the society. A low cost technique has
been developed to produce vermi compost from different organic wastes using locally
available earthworm, Perionyx excavatus within 2 to 3.5 months. This species has been
found equally efficient in comparison to Eisenia foetida, the commercial breed. Earthworm
species Eisenia foetida, Aprorrectodea calinginosa, Perionyx were identified for
are being made to develop economically viable, low cost vermitechnology under thatch hut
conditions for recycling of problematic phytowaste.
Technology for biodigester for human waste at high altitude
under extreme cold conditions has been developed. Consortium of microbes for the same
purpose has been identified. Biodigesters of capacity of 2 cubic meter (sufficient for 50
persons), 1 cubic meter (sufficient for 25 persons) and 0.45 cubic meter (sufficient for 7
-10 person), have been designed, developed and installed at various locations in northern
DRDO has developed several analytical test kits for faster evaluation of deteriorative
changes in foods. These include:
Acidity Testing Paper Strips
and fats are highly susceptible to oxidative deterioration. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are
often tformed as a result of such deteriorative reactions. Chemically-treated paper strips
have been developed to check the growth of FFAs. Different shades of colours appear on the
paper strips when they are dipped in the oil or fat being tested depending on the extent
of FFA production. The test is fairly simple and can be conducted even by an untrained
Meat Testing Kit
An analytical kit based on HPTlC is available for testing meat in the early stages of
spoilage. Detection of metabolites produced on spoilage of meat in different stages is
intrinsic to this meat testing kit. The test enables screening of doubtful quality of meat
and is applicable to fresh (unprocessed) as well as processed (cooked, canned and
dehydrated) meat. The whole test procedure can be completed in 1.5 to 2.0 hr.
Rapid Test Kits for Meat Quality Assessment
Fresh meat is consumed in large quantities by Armed Forces as well as civilians. Any
quality deterioration can cause severe health hazard to the consumer. Quality and safety
of meat is affected by the microbial activity and the health status of the animal prior to
slaughter. Microbial quality. assessmen o mea conventional method is elaborate and time
consuming (24 hr). A test kit based on Resazurin dye reduction has been developed to
determine the microbial quality of meat in less than 1 hr. Resazurin coated paper strip is
wetted and pressed against meat surface turns pink at specified time for spoiled,
incipient and fresh.
Meat obtained by slaughtering the dead or diseased animals
unfit for consumption may reach the ! mainstream of meat retail outlet due to malpractice
(in ante-mortem and postmortem inspection). There is no simple test to identify such meat.
DRDO has standardised and simplified a test based on the reaction between the haemoglobin
and malachite green.
These tests are simple, rapid, reliable, inexpensive and do not require sophisticated
instruments or laboratory facilities or skilled personnel. Any layman can conduct these
tests in any given condition and are specifically suitable for field testing.
Test Kit for E. Coli Detection
E. coli is generally implicated in faecal contamination. A rapid test based on
fluorescence has been standardised. It is suitable for monitoring hygiene in butcheries,
abbatoirs and processing premises. The test yields results in few hours.
Presumptive Test Kit for Coliform Detection
Presence of coliform bacteria, even in 1 g of food makes it unfit for consumption. Normal
testing of coliform takes about 72 hr and requires the services of trained skilled
manpower, besides expensive chemicals. A friendly field test kit has been developed to
screen coliforms in 18 hr at 30 :t 5 C. The kit encompasses a screw cap bottle with test
media having lactose and Andrede's indicator. A gram of food to be tested is introduced
into the bottle and left overnight ( 18 hr) at 30-35 ° C. The kit can be kept in the
pocket of the person testing the sample while sleeping. The warmth of the body (30-33 °
C) provides enough incubation to the sample. If the media in the bottle turns red with
bubbling at the surface, it indicates presence of coliforms.
Drinking Water Quality
A drinking water quality testing kit has been developed for detection of Salmonella or
Citrobacter species by using hydrogen sulphide strip. The test takes 24-42 hr. The change
of colour of the medium to black indicates the presence of Salmonella. The test is
suitable for easy detection of contamination in water treatment plants, rural water supply
tanks, lakes and wells, rivers and streams, water tanks in housing societies, hotels,
hospitals, office complexes, swimming pools, and bottling plants. The test kit is being
marketed by Hi Media Laboratories Ltd.
Field Kit for Water Testing
Field kit for water testing helps in assessing the physico-chemical and bacteriological
quality of water in the field. The tests are qualitative to assess the potability of
water. The chemical assessment based on determination of eight parameters, viz., TDS,
chloride, fluoride, nitrate, iron, hardness, nitrite and free chlorine is completed in 30
Antibody Detection Kit for
A simple, rapid and inexpensive, dot- ELISA kit has
been developed for detection of antibodies of Brucella, an organism primarily afflicting
cattle and other domestic animals. It also affects human beings, causing pyrexia of
unknown origin and low back pain. The animal kit has undergone field trials by the
Department of Animal Husbandry, Government of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad; Disease
Investigation Section, Government of Maharashtra, Pune; Farah Institute for Research on
Goats, Mathura, and Central Military Veterinary Laboratory, Meerut. The utility of human
brucellosis test kit has been established by trials at Veterinary Biological Research
Institute, Nizam Institute of Medical Sciences and Shree Medical Centre Detection kit for
The test can be performed in serum, whole blood or milk at ambient temperature with minor
modifications. The cost pertest is only Rs 5.
Plague Test. Kit
Plague, a disease caused by the Bacillus, Yersinia pestis is a zoonotic disease and man is
infected by the bite of infected fieas.DRDO has developed various surveillance tests and
kits for the' diagnosis of plague, like passive haemagglutination inhibition test,
dot-ELISA for antibody detection, bacteriophage lysis test, reagent for fluorescent
antibody test, rapid monoclonal antibody based system for the identification of F1
positive Yersinia pestis strains and a novel enzyme substrate based Yersinia pestis
These test systems are comparable with the standard WHO
diagnostic kits on sensitivity and specificity and are cost-effective. All these test
systems have been extensively evaluated on patisnt samples as well as on rodent
surveillance samples from Surat and Hosur and are available for use for any; routine
surveillance or disease diagnostic activity.
Typhoid Test Kit
This test kit is useful to detect the. typhoid organism
at an early stage as compared to Wldal test. It is quick, requiring only 8-10 hr in
contrast to the conventional blood culture method which requires 2-3 days to get the
result. The kit has 95 per cent sensitivity and 100 per cent specificity. The test
system is based on rapid growth of the organism in a specially developed medium and only 3
ml of blood is required as compared to 10 ml required for conventional blood culture. The
added advantage of this test is that no special equipment or specially trained staff is
Leptospirosis Test Kit
Leptospirosis is becoming a major public problem in various parts of the country. This
disease is a worldwide zoonotic disease with reported possible involvement of over 260
pathogenic serovars. The symptoms are sudden onset of fever, headache, malaise, and
hemorrhages associated with liver and kidney failures. The conventional diagnosis of this
disease is by the micro agglutination test (MAT). Diagnosis by MAT is always problematic,
as this test requires cultures of 16-221ive serovar in a special laboratory facility with
dark field microscopy.
DRDO has developed simple haemagglutination and dot-ELISA system for the detection of
Leptospira antibodies from patient serum samples. Tests have also been developed for the
differentiation of pathogenic and saprophytic serovars. Haemagglutination test IgM
dot-ELISA were utilised for investigation of suspected leptospirosis outbreak at Delhi and
Mumbai.The sensitivity and specificity of DRDO IgM dot-ELISA kit was found to be
equivalent to the WHO IgM kit. This kit is now available for routine testing by
Latex Agglutination Antigen Detection Kit
Pneumococcal disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is a significant cause of
mortality and morbidity throughout the world. The incidence of serious pneumococcal
infection remains high: for pneumonia, 68-260 per lakh population per year, for
pneumococcal meningitis, 1.2-2.8 per one lakh population per year and for bacteraemia, 7
-25 per lakh population per year. Though the S. pneumoniae is the primary cause of lobar
pneumonia in children below the age of 12 years and adults above 45 years, it can also
cause meningitis as a secondary condition. The clinical manifestation of pneumococcal
meningitis include headache, fever, drowsiness, neck stiffness, vomiting, skin rashes,
irritability etc. Apart from high mortality and morbidity, it is also a source of
neurological sequelae in the form of mental retardation, hearing loss and learning
disabilities. The organism spreads from infected person to healthy person through
respiratory route orthrough asymptomatic carriers.
Diagnosis of S. pneumoniae infection is based on the isolation and identification of the
organisms from the infected individuals. But it is cumbersome and time consuming task due
to the fact that these fastidious organisms grow slowly on primary isolation and moreover
known infected individuals sometimes fail to yield organisms at culture. Therefore,
detection of antigen in clinical samples (CSF etc.) employing serological tests playa
major role in the routine diagnosis of pneumococcal meningitis. Most commonly employed
tests for antigen detection are Latex Aagglutination (LA), Coagglutination (CoAg) and
Counter Immunoelectro-phoresis (CIEP). Though these tests are less sensitive than ELISA,
but due to rapidity of the test, they are being practised. In India, for the routine
diagnosis of pneumococcal meningitis, the antigen detection is carried out in CSF samples
using imported kit which is not cost effective. An LA test has been developed and packed
into a convenient prototype diagnostic kit by the DRDO which is self sufficient for
routine field application. It is truly a field-based kit and does not require any
additional accessories outside the box. The compact box is a kind of a mini laboratory by
itself which can be conveniently taken to field for testing without any special training
required to use it. The special features of the kit are:
- Antigen detection can be performed within 5-7 minutes.
- The kit is suitable for use in field.
- Each kit carries reagents to perform 30 tests.
- No special training is required to use the kit.
Radiopharmaceuticals Kits for
DRDO has developed several ready-to-use cold lyophilized radiopharmaceuticals kits for
diagnostic applications. These include:
Human Immunoglobulin (hlgG) Kit
Tc-99m hlgG produced from the kit is useful in the imaging of soft tissue as well as bone
inflammation induced by microbial infection or metabolic derangement.
Pentavalent Dimercapto Succinate (Penta-DMSA) Kit
Tc-99m (V) DMSA prepared from the kit has been found highly useful in the imaging of soft
tissue tumours and their metastasis. The most specific application has been found in the
imaging of medullary thyroid cancer and its metastasis.
Tc-99m-citrate produced from this kit is capable of even distinguishing bone
metastasis from degenerative lesions in the patients, in addition to its ability to
accumulate the soft tissue tumours.
Tc-99m dextran is an established radiopharmaceutical for the imaging of lymph nodes, which
are often involved in cancer patients. New applications of this indigenously developed
radiopharmaceutical have been identified for the imaging of gastrointestinal bleeding,
protein losing entropathy, kidney cortex imaging and ulcerative colitis in patients.
Using the new kit Tc-99m-glucarate, an infarct-avid radiopharmaceutical can be prepared.
The compound showed high affinity for necrotic myocardial tissue, acute cerebral injury
and tumours. Preliminary studies suggested that Tc-99m-glucarate is retained in both
necrotic and severely ischemic but viable tissues. The other advantages being rapid blood
clearance and low uptake in nearby organs and consequently low raDIATion dose to the
These kits have been subjected to rigorous quality control measures; and the
radiopharmaceuticals Iprepared from the kits have been extensively evaluated in animals as
well as in patients. Based on the data gathered on the safety, efficacy and tolerance of
the products, their physicochemical and biological characteristics, and target
specificity, the National Nuclear Medicine Committee has approved these for multicentric
Recently, the following kits have been developed and are ready for clinical application:
Isothiocyanto-Benzyl Ethylene Diamine Tetramethylene Phosphonic Acid (Itc-Bz-EDTMP)
Anew bifunctional chelating agent has been developed for early diagnosis of bone
metastasis. It can also be used for bone palliation and therapy using beta emitting
radionuclides. Since it is bifunctional in nature, it can be coupled with polymers for the
removal of heavy metal ions and extraction of radionuclides.
On reconstitution it gives quality Tc-99m-ciprofloxacin. The kit has shown its utility for
specific infection imaging in human volunteers. This agent can differentiate sterile from
infectious inflammation. Photosan-3 @ Kit
Tumour scintigraphy confirmed that 99m Tc-Iabeled
Photosan-3@ was preferentially taken up by the neoplastic tissue similar to the parent
compound. Besides, its applications in tumour imaging, 99mTc-Photosan-3@ could also be
used for estimating tumour uptake of Photosan-3@ as may be required for individualization
of clinical protocol of PDT.
Epithelial Growth Factors Receptor Antibody Chelate
Immunoconjugates of epithelial growth receptor with BCA have been developed for labeling
with Tc- 99m for imaging several types oftumours, e.g., gliomas, prostate and breast