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pressure in a very small duration of      Specific energy of some energetic materials
time. Pressures ranging from 300-400
kbar are produced during detonation.         Petrol: 46 MJ/Kg
Rate at which detonation progresses          Coal: 24 MJ/Kg
in the explosive is supersonic. Damage       TNT: 4.2 MJ/Kg
to the target could be classified as any
one or more of the following:

â—Š	 Physical                                  Though specific energy is relatively less for some explosives, rate of release of
â—Š	 Thermal                                energy is much higher, thereby rendering them useful in warhead applications.
â—Š	 Radioactive
â—Š	 Biological                             make up what is known as the              â—Š	 Safe/arm technologies
â—Š	 Chemical                               explosive train. The explosive train is   â—Š	 Fuzing technologies
                                          a series of actions designed to initiate  â—Š	 Explosive-casing material
                                          detonation through a given sequence,      	 interaction studies
                                          and is a combination of primary and
                                          secondary explosives.

â—Š	 Psychological                          Design of Warhead System                  â—Š	 Interaction of kill mechanism and
                                                                                    	target
Elements of Warhead                          Design of warhead is dictated by       â—Š	 Target failure phenomenon
System                                    various factors as follows:
                                          â—Š	 Typeoftargetanditscharacteristics      Classification of Warheads
   Warhead system consists of three       	 like size, hardness, vulnerability,
major elements. They are:                 	 nature of kill                             Within the ambit of general
â—Š	 Kill mechanism                         â—Š	 Characteristics of carrier/delivery    definition given in the previous
â—Š	 Fuzing mechanism                       	 system like probability of hit/near     sections, warheads can be categorised
â—Š	 Safety arming mechanism                	miss                                     into different classes based on the
                                          â—Š	 Technology status in explosives,       source of energy contained in them.
   Kill mechanism contains the            	 materials and their agglomeration       For example :
energetic material. Fuzing mechanism                                                â—Š	 High explosive warheads
senses the environments for                  Design of warhead involves             â—Š	 Fuel air explosive warheads
locking or unlocking various safety       understanding of multi-disciplinary       â—Š	 Nuclear, biological and chemical
interlocks. Safety arming mechanism       fields such as:                           	warheads
is the element which houses the           â—Š	 Chemistry and engineering of
initiator and detonates the warhead       	explosives                                  Conventional high explosive
on receiving appropriate signals from     â—Š	 Detonics                               warheads can be further classified into
fuzing mechanism. All these elements                                                omni-directional and directed energy
                                                                                    warheads. General classification of
                                                                                    warheads is given in the following
                                                                                    chart. This is not an exhaustive listing.

                SENSITIVITY                                                            Innovative designs intended to
                                                                                    optimise delivery of energy onto the
                                                                                    target has resulted in different kinds
                                                                                    of kill mechanisms. However, the
                                                                                    basic mechanism will fall in one of
                                                                                    the categories mentioned in the chart.

                Explosive Train

4 May-June 2018 								Warhead for Missiles, Torpedoes and Rockets
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